Narrow-leaved Dalmatian toadflax

Linaria gensitifolia spp. dalmatica

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Description and Life Cycle:

Narrow-leaved Dalmatian toadflax is a herbaceous, short-lived perennial with waxy stems and leaves. The leaves are linear to lanceolate shaped, measuring 3.5 – 8.5 cm long. The leaves on flowering stems are slightly longer than they are wide and the leaves on the sterile basal stems have even smaller proportions and dimensions. The leaves have one to three veins. The flowerings stalks grow from 28 – 110 cm tall and have a stem calliper of 5 – 9 mm. The flowers are yellow ‘snapdragon-like’, two lipped, with an orange throat and a single long spur. Flowering usually occurs from June to the middle of September and requires cross pollination. The seed capsules are two chambered, arranged upright, and are oval shaped. The blackish brown seeds are ridged, giving them a rough surface. When plants are shaken or disturbed, the seeds are dispersed from the capsule openings. Seedlings develop in the fall or spring and can establish a 50 cm tap root in only 8 weeks. Their lateral roots grow just below the soil surface and produce new crowns.

Biological Control Agents


Harris, P. and R. DeClerk-Floate. 2005. Broad- and narrow-leaved Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill., and L. genistifolia (L.) Mill. 2006-01-17. On line at:

MFR staff observations and comments